Just like cats, bunnies can be litter trained, which is why so many bunny owners are able to let their buns run free in the house. Most rabbits prefer to do their business in one spot, and so litter training comes naturally.

The Perfect Litter Box

Ideally, your rabbit should be housed in a 4×4 space without a wire bottom, and so a plastic litter box made for cats should be able to fit nicely.  In the Adoption Center, our larger bunnies use low, plastic storage tubs that you can buy at Target or Wal-Mart. Or, some bunny parents use the plastic tray that goes at the bottom of dog crates as an extra large, super low, litter box.  This is an especially good option for bunnies that have difficulty climbing into higher boxes due to arthritis or old age.

Litter should cover at least half the box, although some people choose to line the entire box with litter, which works just as well. Paper based litter, such as CareFresh, Yesterday’s News, or even shredded newspaper (made with soy-based ink), is a safe option. Pelleted horse or cat bedding made from kiln-dried pine or aspen– such as Feline Pine-is another affordable option, but the bedding must be kiln-dried to remove harmful phenols and hydrocarbons.  Alternatively, in some areas and seasons you can find wood stove pellet, which is also a great option and is very similar to Feline Pine. Many people use a combination of one or more types of litter!

Other types of litter, such as clumping litter, deodorant crystals, corncob litter, or oat- and alfalfa-based litters are dangerous or toxic if ingested, so they should be avoided.  Softwood (such as pine- or cedar-based litters) or clay litter can be dangerous if inhaled, so avoid those types as well.

The other half of the litter box should be where you keep your bunny’s hay. You will need to refill this daily, as bunnies need to have a constant fresh supply of hay.  Not only will having hay in the litter box encourage your rabbit to get into the box, but it will also encourage them to eat their hay.  Believe it or not, rabbits like to have something to munch on while doing their business!

You should clean your bunnies litter box at least every other day with a safe, non-toxic cleaner such as white vinegar or baking soda.  You could also use cleaning products made for animals like Nature’s Miracle.  The litter and hay should be disposed of and if you’re using an organic litter it can be composed into an excellent fertilizer.

How To Litter Box Train

It’s imperative to litter box training that your rabbit be spayed/neutered.  Unaltered rabbits with raging hormones will mark their territory with urine, and therefore are not easily litter box trained.

Once your bunny is fixed, the most frequently used training method is to start small.  Put the litter box in the bunny’s 4×4 space.  If she goes in another area, move the box to that area until she starts using the box.  If she still refuses, you may have to temporarily reduce her space until she gets the idea.

After she is consistently using her litter box in her 4×4 space, you can let her out, but only with careful supervision and preferably in a room where you can easily keep an eye on her, like a small bedroom.  If she attempts to urinate in a corner or space where there is no box, loudly and sharply tell her “No” and nicely herd her back to her box.  You must keep an eye on your bunny until she is completely trained, and never scold her after she has an accident, as it is only effective if you catch her in the act. Never, ever hit your rabbit for any reason- by simply telling your bunny “No!” you are doing enough. Also whenever you see your bunny using the box, make sure to give her lots of praise.

You can continue increasing her free space as she consistently uses the litter box, but make sure to go slowly.  If you plan on allowing your bunny to have lots of space, it can be very helpful to have multiple litter boxes, especially if she is able to go up and down stairs.

A few things to keep in mind: if your bunny is consistently using the litter box for an extended period of time, and then suddenly starts urinating outside the box, it could be a sign of an issue such as a urinary tract infection, bladder sludge, kidney stones or bladder stones.  Assuming there are no external stressors, such as a new member of the household, furniture rearranging, unusual visitors in the home, etc., the bunny should be taken to see a vet.

Also, many bunnies will continue to mark their territory with bunny poops even after they are spayed/neutered, especially if there is another bunny in the home. So, if your bunny is pooping small amounts outside of the box, this is completely normal.  Fortunately, healthy rabbit poops are hard and dry, and easy to clean up. In addition, if your bunny lives in a 4×4 space, this is generally what she considers her territory, and will not mark outside of that space.

Finally, remember that all bunnies are different and while this method works for most buns, it may not work for yours.  If you are struggling with litter box training, please feel free to contact us at OHRR for support and advice!

This Post Has 9 Comments

  1. Hello! I am considering adopting a rabbit in the future, but litter training is essential for my family. I would be a first time owner, so I am trying to learn as much information about rabbit care/ health that I can before, but have a couple questions about litter training.

    I have a large room for the rabbit to free roan, but when you first bring them home, can you put the rabbit in a large cage with the litter box to start, then gradually give them more space to roam? I was hoping to be able to put the rabbit in a large cage with a litter box (and getting the rabbit out a couple times a day for exercise and playtime) until it starts using it, then letting the rabbit roam in a large pet pen, then graduating to free roaming the room. And my last question, when you praise a rabbit for using their litter box, do rabbits respond positively to treats like a dog or cat would, or is it better to just verbally praise them?

    Thank you for your time, your organization is doing a wonderful thing!

    1. Thank you for reaching out! Good news! Our adoptable rabbits are litter box trained for you. Most rabbits respond very well to using a litter box after they are spayed or neutered. Unlike cats and dogs, they really don’t need rewards or treats to use their litter box. They actually PREFER to have a place to go. The best way to keep up with their good habits is to use the correct litter, clean their box regularly, and refresh their boxes with fresh timothy hay daily. When they come to live in your home, it is best to have a 4×4 exercise pen with a litter box inside. Let them out to play each day and they will gradually get to know their new space. This will allow them to become comfortable in their new environment and understand where their litter box is located. If it is a very large free roam area (multiple floors), it would be best to have multiple litter boxes, such as one on each floor. However, some rabbits don’t like to venture that far and may stick to their favorite room(s) anyway. I hope this helps!

  2. I had a domestic rabbit run out in front of my car. I stopped the car, and saved it. She’s adorable. The problem is, I live in an RV, and the rabbit poops everywhere. It stinks! How can I get her to poop and pee in litter box, even if vehicle is in motion?

    1. Hi Jake – is your rabbit spayed? This is definitely step 1 for litter box training. A spayed / neutered rabbit is MUCH better with litter box habits.

  3. so do they sleep in the litter box too or do you have 2 boxes one for pooping the other for sleeping i would think this would be confusing first time bunny pet

    1. We put the litter box in the corner of a pen that is at least 4 ft x 4 ft in space. The pen includes a “hidey house”, which is typically where they sleep. The pen space allows them to move around and play. We recommend letting them out of their pen for additional exercise each day. You can find details on bunny living spaces here – https://www.ohiohouserabbitrescue.org/i-want-to-learn/bunny-living-space/

  4. Hi. Our bunny is spayed and litter trained , his 7 months old. Now for the last week his been urinating outside of his box. Nothing changed in his environment except myself cleaning his hutch once a week and clearing it all fresh. I don’t understand why suddenly he is doing that ?? Will appreciate some advice .

    1. Hi Denis, If this is sudden and there are no other likely causes that you can think off, it’s probably worth a trip to the vet. While it can be a territory issue in some cases, it can also be the symptom of an underlying health issue.

  5. I just got my bunny today and the owner said shes litter trained but tonight she pooped and peed on the floor. So how do i solve that so she goes in the litter box.

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